Holocaust Education in Worcester Schools: An Evaluation

This manuscript is available for download here


This paper seeks to understand how, and why, understandings of lesbianism shifted in Germany over the course of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Through close readings of both popular cultural productions and medical and psychological texts produced within the context of Imperial and Weimar Germany, this paper explores the changing nature of understandings of homosexuality in women, arguing that over the course of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the dominant conceptualization of lesbianism transformed from an understanding of lesbians that was rooted in biology and viewed lesbians as physically masculine “gender inverts”, to one that was grounded in psychology, and understood lesbians as inherently traumatized, mother-fixated, and suicidal. This paper suggests that this shift was facilitated by the increasing influence of psychologists like Sigmund Freud, and greater German preoccupation with trauma and suicide following WWI, and highlights the importance of historical context in shaping self-understanding.

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Spencer Cronin

Spencer Cronin

Spencer Cronin ‘18 is a history major with a concentration in Holocaust and Genocide Studies. His recently completed honors thesis, “Confronting the Past: The Holocaust as Narrated through Facing History and Ourselves,” explores how one of the most prominent Holocaust education organizations in the world (Facing History and Ourselves) has crafted a narrative of the Holocaust based on the idea of teaching moral lessons. Next year, he will be enrolled in Clark’s 5th year M.A. program in History.